Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles 3rd Edition 2018 (PDF)

Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles 3rd Edition 2018 (PDF)
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About the book


Edition 2018
Pages: 573
Authors: Mehrdad Ehsani, Yimin Gao, Stefano Longo, Kambiz M. Ebrahimi Rushton, Judi Strain
Publisher: CRC Press
Language: English

Content

Preface
Acknowledgments
Authors
1. Environmental Impact and History of Modern Transportation
1.1 Air Pollution
1.1.1 Nitrogen Oxides
1.1.2 Carbon Monoxide
1.1.3 Unburned HCs
1.1.4 Other Pollutants
1.2 Global Warming
1.3 Petroleum Resources
1.4 Induced Costs
1.5 Importance of Different Transportation Development Strategies
to Future Oil Supply
1.6 History of EVs
1.7 History of HEVs
1.8 History of Fuel Cell Vehicles
Bibliography
2. Fundamentals of Vehicle Propulsion and Braking
2.1 General Description of Vehicle Movement
2.2 Vehicle Resistance
2.2.1 Rolling Resistance
2.2.2 Aerodynamic Drag
2.2.3 Grading Resistance
2.3 Dynamic Equation
2.4 Tire–Ground Adhesion and Maximum Tractive Effort
2.5 Power Train Tractive Effort and Vehicle Speed
2.6 Vehicle Performance
2.6.1 Maximum Speed of a Vehicle
2.6.2 Gradeability
2.6.3 Acceleration Performance
2.7 Operating Fuel Economy
2.7.1 Fuel Economy Characteristics of IC Engines
2.7.2 Computation of Vehicle Fuel Economy
2.7.3 Basic Techniques to Improve Vehicle Fuel Economy
2.8 Brake Performance
2.8.1 Braking Force
2.8.2 Braking Distribution on Front and Rear Axles
2.8.3 Braking Regulation and Braking Performance Analysis
2.8.3.1 Braking Regulation
2.8.3.2 Braking Performance Analysis
Bibliography
3. Internal Combustion Engines
3.1 Spark Ignition Engine
3.1.1 Basic Structure and Operation Principle with Otto Cycle
3.1.2 Operation Parameters
3.1.2.1 Rating Values
3.1.2.2 Indicated Torque and Indicated Mean Effective Pressure
3.1.2.3 Brake Mean Effective Pressure (bmep) and Brake Torque
3.1.2.4 Emission Measurement
3.1.2.5 Engine Operation Characteristics
3.1.3 Basic Techniques for Improving Engine Performance, Efficiency, and
Emissions
3.1.3.1 Forced Induction
3.1.3.2 Gasoline Direct Injection and Lean-Burn Engines
3.1.3.3 Multivalve and Variable Valve Timing
3.1.3.4 Variable Compression Ratio
3.1.3.5 Exhaust Gas Recirculation
3.1.3.6 Intelligent Ignition
3.1.3.7 New Engine Materials
3.1.4 Brief Review of SI Engine Control System
3.1.5 Operation Principle with Atkinson Cycle
3.1.5.1 Original Engine with Atkinson Cycle
3.1.5.1 Original Engine with Atkinson Cycle
3.1.5.2 Modern Engine with Atkinson Cycle
3.2 Compression Ignition Engine
3.3 Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fuel Engines
3.3.1 Alternative Fuels
3.3.1.1 Ethanol and Ethanol Engine
3.3.1.2 Compressed Natural Gas and Natural Gas Engine
3.3.1.3 Enhanced Hydrogen (H2 Combustion)
Bibliography
4. Vehicle Transmission
4.1 Power Plant Characteristics
4.2 Transmission Characteristics
4.3 Manual Gear Transmission (MT)
4.4 Automatic Transmission
4.4.1 Conventional Automatic Transmission
4.4.1.1 Torque Converter Operation
4.4.1.2 Planetary or Epicyclic Gear Train
4.4.1.3 Compound Epicyclic Gear
4.4.2 Automated Manual and Dual-Clutch Transmission
4.5 Continuously Variable Transmission
4.6 Infinitely Variable Transmissions
4.7 Dedicated Hybrid Transmission (DHT)
Bibliography.
5. Electric Vehicles
5.1 Configurations of Electric Vehicles
5.2 Performance of Electric Vehicles
5.2.1 Traction Motor Characteristics
5.2.2 Tractive Effort and Transmission Requirement
5.2.3 Vehicle Performance
5.3 Tractive Effort in Normal Driving
5.4 Energy Consumption
Bibliography
6. Hybrid Electric Vehicles
6.1 Concept of Hybrid Electric Drivetrains
6.2 Architectures of Hybrid Electric Drivetrains
6.2.1 Series Hybrid Electric Drivetrains (Electrical Coupling)
6.2.2 Parallel Hybrid Electric Drivetrains (Mechanical Coupling)
6.2.2.1 Parallel Hybrid Drivetrain with Torque Coupling
6.2.2.2 Parallel Hybrid Drivetrain with Speed Coupling
6.2.2.3 Hybrid Drivetrains with Both Torque and
Speed Coupling
Bibliography
7. Electric Propulsion Systems
7.1 DC Motor Drives
7.1.1 Principle of Operation and Performance
7.1.2 Combined Armature Voltage and Field Control
7.1.3 Chopper Control of DC Motors
7.1.4 Multiquadrant Control of Chopper-Fed DC Motor Drives
7.1.4.1 Two-Quadrant Control of Forward Motoring and
Regenerative Braking
7.1.4.2 Four-Quadrant Operation
7.2 Induction Motor Drives
7.2.1 Basic Operation Principles of Induction Motors
7.2.2 Steady-State Performance
7.2.3 Constant Volt/Hertz Control
7.2.4 Power Electronic Control
7.2.5 Field Orientation Control
7.2.5.1 Field Orientation Principles
7.2.5.2 Control
7.2.5.3 Direct Rotor Flux Orientation Scheme
7.2.5.4 Indirect Rotor Flux Orientation Scheme
7.2.6 Voltage Source Inverter for FOC
7.2.6.1 Voltage Control in Voltage Source Inverter
7.2.6.2 Current Control in Voltage Source Inverter
7.3 Permanent Magnetic BLDC Motor Drives
7.3.1 Basic Principles of BLDC Motor Drives
7.3.2 BLDC Machine Construction and Classification
7.3.3 Properties of PM Materials
7.3.3.1 Alnico
7.3.3.2 Ferrites
7.3.3.3 Rare-Earth PMs
7.3.4 Performance Analysis and Control of BLDC Machines
7.3.4.1 Performance Analysis
7.3.4.2 Control of BLDC Motor Drives
7.3.5 Extend Speed Technology
7.3.6 Sensorless Techniques
7.3.6.1 Methods Using Measurables and Math
7.3.6.2 Methods Using Observers
7.3.6.3 Methods Using Back EMF Sensing
7.3.6.4 Unique Sensorless Techniques
7.4 SRM Drives
7.4.1 Basic Magnetic Structure
7.4.2 Torque Production
7.4.3 SRM Drive Converter
7.4.4 Modes of Operation
7.4.5 Generating Mode of Operation (Regenerative Braking)
7.4.6 Sensorless Control
7.4.6.1 Phase Flux Linkage-Based Method
7.4.6.2 Phase Inductance-Based Method
7.4.6.3 Modulated Signal Injection Methods
7.4.6.4 Mutually Induced Voltage-Based Method
7.4.6.5 Observer-Based Methods
7.4.7 Self-Tuning Techniques of SRM Drives
7.4.7.1 Self-Tuning with Arithmetic Method
7.4.7.2 Self-Tuning Using an ANN
7.4.8 Vibration and Acoustic Noise in SRM
7.4.9 SRM Design
7.4.9.1 Number of Stator and Rotor Poles
7.4.9.2 Stator Outer Diameter
7.4.9.3 Rotor Outer Diameter
7.4.9.4 Air Gap
7.4.9.5 Stator Arc
7.4.9.6 Stator Back Iron
7.4.9.7 Performance Prediction
Bibliography
8. Design Principle of Series (Electrical Coupling) Hybrid
Electric Drivetrain
8.1 Operation Patterns
8.2 Control Strategies
8.2.1 Max. SOC-of-PPS Control Strategy
8.2.2 Engine On–Off or Thermostat Control Strategy
8.3 Design Principles of a Series (Electrical Coupling) Hybrid Drivetrain
8.3.1 Electrical Coupling Device
8.3.2 Power Rating Design of Traction Motor
8.3.3 Power Rating Design of Engine/Generator
8.3.4 Design of PPS
8.3.4.1 Power Capacity of PPS
8.3.4.2 Energy Capacity of PPS
8.4 Design Example
8.4.1 Design of Traction Motor Size
8.4.2 Design of Gear Ratio
8.4.3 Verification of Acceleration Performance
8.4.4 Verification of Gradeability
8.4.5 Design of Engine/Generator Size
8.4.6 Design of Power Capacity of PPS
8.4.7 Design of Energy Capacity of PPS
Bibliography
9. Parallel (Mechanically Coupled) Hybrid Electric Drivetrain Design
9.1 Drivetrain Configuration and Design Objectives
9.2 Control Strategies
9.2.1 Max. SOC-of-PPS Control Strategy
9.2.2 Engine On–Off (Thermostat) Control Strategy
9.2.3 Constrained Engine On–Off Control Strategy
9.2.4 Fuzzy Logic Control Technique
9.2.5 Dynamic Programming Technique
9.3 Parametric Design of a Drivetrain
9.3.1 Engine Power Design
9.3.2 Transmission Design
9.3.3 Electric Motor Drive Power Design
9.3.4 PPS Design
9.4 Simulations
Bibliography
10. Design and Control Methodology of Series–Parallel (Torque and Speed Coupling) Hybrid Drivetrain
10.1 Drivetrain Configuration
10.1.1 Speed-Coupling Analysis
10.1.2 Drivetrain Configuration
10.2 Drivetrain Control Methodology
10.2.1 Control System
10.2.2 Engine Speed Control Approach
10.2.3 Traction Torque Control Approach
10.2.4 Drivetrain Control Strategies
10.2.4.1 Engine Speed Control Strategy
10.2.4.2 Traction Torque Control Strategy
10.2.4.3 Regenerative Braking Control
10.3 Drivetrain Parameter Design
10.4 Simulation of an Example Vehicle
Bibliography.
11. Design and Control Principles of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles
11.1 Statistics of Daily Driving Distance
11.2 Energy Management Strategy
11.2.1 AER-Focused Control Strategy
11.2.2 Blended Control Strategy
11.3 Energy Storage Design
Bibliography
12. Mild Hybrid Electric Drivetrain Design
12.1 Energy Consumed in Braking and Transmission
12.2 Parallel Mild Hybrid Electric Drivetrain
12.2.1 Configuration
12.2.2 Operating Modes and Control Strategy
12.2.3 Drivetrain Design
12.2.4 Performance
12.3 Series–Parallel Mild Hybrid Electric Drivetrain
12.3.1 Configuration of Drivetrain with Planetary Gear Unit
12.3.2 Operating Modes and Control
12.3.2.1 Speed-Coupling Operating Mode
12.3.2.2 Torque-Coupling Operating Mode
12.3.2.3 Engine-Alone Traction Mode
12.3.2.4 Motor-Alone Traction Mode
12.3.2.5 Regenerative Braking Mode
12.3.2.6 Engine Starting
12.3.3 Control Strategy
12.3.4 Drivetrain with Floating-Stator Motor
Bibliography
13. Peaking Power Sources and Energy Storage
13.1 Electrochemical Batteries
13.1.1 Electrochemical Reactions
13.1.2 Thermodynamic Voltage
13.1.3 Specific Energy
13.1.4 Specific Power
13.1.5 Energy Efficiency
13.1.6 Battery Technologies
13.1.6.1 Lead–Acid Battery
13.1.6.2 Nickel-Based Batteries
13.1.6.3 Lithium-Based Batteries
13.2 Ultracapacitors
13.2.1 Features of Ultracapacitors
13.2.2 Basic Principles of Ultracapacitors
13.2.3 Performance of Ultracapacitors
13.2.4 Ultracapacitor Technologies
13.3 Ultra-High-Speed Flywheels
13.3.1 Operation Principles of Flywheels
13.3.2 Power Capacity of Flywheel Systems
13.3.3 Flywheel Technologies
13.4 Hybridization of Energy Storages
13.4.1 Concept of Hybrid Energy Storage
13.4.2 Passive and Active Hybrid Energy Storage with Battery and Ultracapacitor
13.4.3 Battery and Ultracapacitor Size Design
Bibliography
14. Fundamentals of Regenerative Braking
14.1 Braking Energy Consumed in Urban Driving
14.2 Braking Energy versus Vehicle Speed
14.3 Braking Energy versus Braking Power
14.4 Braking Power versus Vehicle Speed
14.5 Braking Energy versus Vehicle Deceleration Rate
14.6 Braking Energy on Front and Rear Axles
14.7 Brake System of EV, HEV, and FCV
14.7.1 Parallel Hybrid Brake System
14.7.1.1 Design and Control Principles with Fixed Ratios between
Electric and Mechanical Braking Forces
14.7.1.2 Design and Control Principles for Maximum Regenerative Braking
14.7.2 Fully Controllable Hybrid Brake System
14.7.2.1 Control Strategy for Optimal Braking Performance
14.7.2.2 Control Strategy for Optimal Energy Recovery
Bibliography
15. Fuel Cells
15.1 Operation Principles of Fuel Cells
15.2 Electrode Potential and Current–Voltage Curve
15.3 Fuel and Oxidant Consumption
15.4 Fuel Cell System Characteristics
15.5 Fuel Cell Technologies
15.5.1 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
15.5.2 Alkaline Fuel Cells
15.5.3 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells
15.5.4 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
15.5.5 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
15.5.6 Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
15.6 Fuel Supply
15.6.1 Hydrogen Storage
15.6.1.1 Compressed Hydrogen
15.6.1.2 Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen
15.6.1.3 Metal Hydrides
15.6.2 Hydrogen Production
15.6.2.1 Steam Reforming
15.6.2.2 POX Reforming
15.6.2.3 Autothermal Reforming
15.6.3 Ammonia as Hydrogen Carrier
15.7 Non-Hydrogen Fuel Cells
Bibliography
16. Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Drivetrain Design
16.1 Configuration
16.2 Control Strategy
16.3 Parametric Design
16.3.1 Motor Power Design
16.3.2 Power Design of Fuel Cell System
16.3.3 Design of Power and Energy Capacity of PPS
16.3.3.1 Power Capacity of PPS
16.3.3.2 Energy Capacity of PPS
16.4 Design Example
Bibliography
17. Design of Series Hybrid Drivetrain for Off-Road Vehicles
17.1 Motion Resistance
17.1.1 Motion Resistance Caused by Terrain Compaction
17.1.2 Motion Resistance Caused by Terrain Bulldozing
17.1.3 Internal Resistance of Running Gear
17.1.4 Tractive Effort of Terrain
17.1.5 Drawbar Pull
17.2 Tracked Series Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain Architecture
17.3 Parametric Design of Drivetrain
17.3.1 Traction Motor Power Design
Traction Motor Power Design
17.3.1.1 Vehicle Thrust versus Speed
17.3.1.2 Motor Power and Acceleration Performance
17.3.1.3 Motor Power and Gradeability
17.3.1.4 Steering Maneuver of a Tracked Vehicle
17.4 Engine/Generator Power Design
17.5 Power and Energy Design of Energy Storage
17.5.1 Peaking Power for Traction
17.5.2 Peaking Power for Nontraction
17.5.3 Energy Design of Batteries/Ultracapacitors
17.5.4 Combination of Batteries and Ultracapacitors
Bibliography
18. Design of Full-Size-Engine HEV with Optimal Hybridization Ratio
18.1 Design Philosophy of Full-Size-Engine HEV 57
18.2 Optimal Hybridization Ratio
18.2.1 Simulation under Highway Driving Conditions
18.2.2 Optimal Hybridization of Electrical Drive Power
18.3 10–25 kW Electrical Drive Packages
18.3.1 Sensitivity to Engine Peak Power
18.3.2 Sensitivity to Vehicle Mass
18.3.3 10–25 kW Electrical Drive Power Window
18.3.4 Electrical Drive Package for Passenger Cars
18.4 Comparison with Commercially Available Passenger Cars
18.4.1 Comparison with 2011 Toyota Corolla
18.4.2 Comparison with 2011 Toyota Prius Hybrid
Bibliography
19. Powertrain Optimization
19.1 Powertrain Modeling Techniques
19.1.1 Forward-Facing Vehicle Model
19.1.2 Backward-Facing Vehicle Model
19.1.3 Comparison of Forward-Facing and Backward-Facing Models
19.2 Defining Performance Criteria  
19.2.1 Tank-to-Wheel Emissions
19.2.2 Well-to-wheel Emissions
19.3 Powertrain Simulation Methods  
19.4 Modular Powertrain Structure  
19.4.1 Framework of Proposed Toolbox
19.4.2 Modular Powertrain Structure
19.4.3 Optimizer
19.5 Optimization Problem
19.5.1 Extending Optimizer to Support Multiple Powertrain Topologies
19.5.2 Multiobjective Optimization
19.6 Case Studies: Optimization of Powertrain Topology and Component Sizing
19.6.1 Case Study 1: Tank-to-Wheel versus Well-to-Wheel CO2
19.6.1.1 Lowest Well-to-Wheel CO2 Emissions
19.6.1.2 Lowest Tank-to-Wheel CO2 Emission
19.6.1.3 Multiobjective Optimization
19.6.2 Case Study 2: Powertrain Cost versus Well-to-Wheel CO2
Bibliography
20. User Guide for Multiobjective Optimization Toolbox
20.1 About the Software
20.2 Software Structure  
20.2.1 Input Sheet
20.2.2 Genetic Algorithm
20.2.3 Fitness Evaluation Algorithm
20.2.4 Simulation of Vehicle Configurations
20.2.5 Component Models Available
20.2.6 Running a Simulation  
20.2.6.1 Definition of Drive Cycle
20.2.6.2 Selection of Cost Function
20.2.6.3 Power Train Type Selection
20.2.6.4 Advanced Settings
20.2.7 Running the Simulation
20.2.8 Results
20.3 Capabilities and Limitations of Software
Appendix: Technical Overview of Toyota Prius
Index

Tags: Fuel Cell Vehicles

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