Advanced Automotive Fault Diagnosis. Automotive Technology -Vehicle Maintenance and Repair 5th Edition 2021 (PDF)

Advanced Automotive Fault Diagnosis. Automotive Technology -Vehicle Maintenance and Repair 5th Edition 2021 (PDF)
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About the book


Edition: 5th Edition, 2021
Pages: 410
Authors: Tom Denton
Publisher: Routledge
Language: English
ISBN 9780429317781


Content



1 Introduction
1.1 Diagnosis
1.1.1 What is needed to find faults?
1.2 Safe working practices
1.2.1 Introduction
1.2.2 Risk assessment and reduction
1.2.3 High voltage vehicles
1.2.4 IMI TechSafe™
1.3 Terminology
1.3.1 Introduction
1.4 Report writing
1.4.1 Introduction
1.4.2 Example report
1.4.2.1 Introduction
1.4.2.2 Test criteria
1.4.2.3 Facilities/Resources
1.4.2.4 Test procedures
1.4.2.5 Measured results
1.4.2.6 Analysis of results
1.4.2.7 Conclusions
2 Diagnostic techniques
2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Logic
2.1.2 Data
2.1.3 Where to stop?
2.2 Diagnostic process
2.2.1 Six-stage process
2.2.2 The art of diagnostics
2.2.3 Concern, cause, correction
2.2.4 Root cause analysis
2.2.5 Summary
2.3 Diagnostics on paper
2.3.1 Introduction
2.3.2 Examples
2.3.3 How long is a piece of string?
2.4 Real-world diagnostics
2.4.1 Introduction
2.4.2 What do you know?
2.4.3 Training
2.4.4 The customer
2.4.5 How much does diagnostics cost?
2.4.6 How much should you charge?
2.4.7 Diagnostic sequence
2.4.8 Efficiency
2.4.9 Summary
2.5 Mechanical diagnostic techniques
2.5.1 Check the obvious first
2.5.2 Noise, vibration and harshness
2.5.3 Noise conditions
2.5.4 Vibration conditions
2.5.5 Road test
2.5.6 Engine noises
2.5.7 Sources of engine noise
2.6 Electrical diagnostic techniques
2.6.1 Check the obvious first
2.6.2 Test lights and analogue meters – warning
2.6.3 Generic electrical testing procedure
2.6.4 Volt drop testing
2.6.5 Testing for short circuits to earth
2.6.6 On and off load tests
2.6.7 Black box technique
2.6.8 Sensor to ECU method
2.6.9 Flight recorder tests
2.6.10 Faultfinding by luck – or is it logic?
2.6.11 Colour codes and terminal numbers
2.6.12 Back probing connectors
2.7 Systems
2.7.1 What is a system?
2.7.2 Vehicle systems
2.7.3 Open-loop systems
2.7.4 Closed-loop systems
2.7.5 Block diagrams
2.8 Pass-through
2.8.1 Overview
2.8.2 Software
3 Tools and equipment
3.1 Range of equipment
3.1.1 Introduction
3.1.2 Basic hand tools
3.1.3 Multimeter
3.1.4 Diagnostic scanners overview
3.1.4.1 VCDS
3.1.4.2 Snap-on Verdict
3.1.4.3 TopDon Artipad1
3.1.5 Oscilloscope
3.1.6 Breakout box
3.1.7 Battery tester
3.1.8 Insulation tester
3.1.9 Thermal camera
3.1.10 Sensor simulator
3.1.11 Actuator driver
3.1.12 Logic probe
3.1.13 Accuracy of test equipment
3.2 Multimeters
3.2.1 Introduction
3.2.2 Categories
3.2.3 Taking measurements
3.2.3.1 Voltage
3.2.3.2 Resistance
3.2.3.3 Current
3.2.4 What is an open circuit voltage and how do you know zero is zero?
3.2.5 Voltage drop testing example
3.2.6 Insulation testing
3.3 Oscilloscopes
3.3.1 Operation
3.3.2 High voltages and safety
3.3.3 AC–DC
3.3.4 Channels
3.3.5 Making connections
3.3.6 Non-invasive measurement
3.3.7 Wiggly lines
3.3.8 Example equipment
3.3.8.1 Snap-on Verdict
3.3.8.2 PicoScope
3.3.9 Waveform library
3.3.10 PicoDiagnostics
3.3.11 Pressure sensor
3.3.12 Noise and vibration
3.4 Diagnostic tools
3.4.1 On-board diagnostics
3.4.2 Diagnostic trouble codes
3.4.3 Example scanners
3.4.3.1 Basic DIY
3.4.3.2 VCDS
3.4.3.3 ArtiPad
3.4.3.4 How many scanners do you need?
3.4.4 Live data
3.4.5 Serial port communications
3.4.6 OBD2 signal protocols
3.4.7 Engine analyses
3.5 Emission testing
3.5.1 Introduction
3.5.2 Exhaust gas measurement
3.5.3 Exhaust analyzer
3.5.4 Emission limits
3.6 Pressure testing
3.6.1 Introduction
3.6.2 Oscilloscope transducer
3.6.3 Pressure analysis
4 Sensors, actuators and oscilloscope diagnostics
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Sensors
4.2.1 Introduction and sensor diagnostics
4.2.2 Inductive sensors
4.2.2.1 Crankshaft and camshaft sensors
4.2.2.2 ABS speed sensor
4.2.2.3 Inductive distributor pick-up
4.2.3 Variable resistance
4.2.3.1 Throttle position potentiometer
4.2.3.2 Airflow meter – air vane
4.2.4 Hot wire airflow sensor
4.2.4.1 Airflow meter – hot wire
4.2.5 Thermistors
4.2.5.1 Coolant temperature sensor
4.2.6 Hall effect sensors
4.2.6.1 Hall effect distributor pick-up
4.2.6.2 ABS Hall sensor
4.2.6.3 Road speed sensor (Hall effect)
4.2.7 Piezo accelerometer
4.2.7.1 Knock sensor
4.2.8 Oxygen sensors
4.2.8.1 Oxygen sensor (Titania)
4.2.8.2 Oxygen sensor (Zirconia)
4.2.9 Pressure sensors
4.2.9.1 Strain gauges
4.2.9.2 Fuel pressure
4.2.9.3 Manifold absolute pressure
4.2.10 Variable capacitance
4.2.10.1 Oil quality sensor
4.2.11 Optical sensors
4.2.12 Dynamic position sensors
4.2.13 Rain sensor
4.3 Actuators
4.3.1 Introduction
4.3.2 Testing actuators
4.3.3 Motorised and solenoid actuators
4.3.3.1 Motors
4.3.3.2 Rotary idle speed control valve
4.3.3.3 Stepper motors
4.3.4 Solenoid actuators
4.3.4.1 Single-point injector
4.3.4.2 Multi-point injector
4.3.4.3 Common rail diesel injector
4.3.4.4 Idle speed control valve
4.3.4.5 Exhaust gas recirculation valve
4.3.4.6 Carbon canister and other valves
4.3.5 Thermal actuators
4.4 Engine waveforms
4.4.1 Ignition primary
4.4.2 Ignition secondary
4.4.3 Diesel glow plugs
4.4.4 Alternator waveform
4.4.5 Relative compression petrol
4.5 Communication networks
4.5.1 Introduction
4.5.2 CAN
4.5.3 LIN
4.5.4 FlexRay
4.5.5 Time-triggered CAN
4.5.6 Byteflight
4.5.7 Ethernet
4.6 Summary
Acknowledgement
5 On-board diagnostics
5.1 History
5.1.1 Introduction
5.1.2 Vehicle emissions and environmental health
5.1.3 History of the emissions control legislation
5.1.4 Introduction of vehicle emissions control strategies
5.2 What is on-board diagnostics?
5.2.1 OBD scenario example
5.2.2 Origins of OBD in the USA
5.2.3 P code composition
5.2.4 European on-board diagnostics and global adoption
5.2.5 Summary
5.3 Petrol/Gasoline on-board diagnostic monitors
5.3.1 Introduction
5.3.2 Legislative drivers
5.3.3 Component monitoring
5.3.4 Rationality testing
5.3.5 Circuit testing
5.3.6 Catalyst monitor
5.3.7 Evaporation system monitor
5.3.8 Fuel system monitoring
5.3.9 Exhaust gas re-circulation monitor
5.3.10 Secondary air monitor
5.3.11 Monitors and readiness flags
5.4 Misfire detection
5.4.1 Misfire monitor
5.4.2 Crank speed fluctuation
5.4.3 Ionising current monitoring
5.4.4 Cylinder pressure sensing
5.4.5 Exhaust pressure analysis
5.5 OBD overview
5.5.1 Introduction
5.5.2 OBD2
5.5.3 EOBD
5.5.4 Features and technology of current systems
5.5.4.1 MIL activation logic for detected malfunctions
5.5.4.2 MIL healing
5.5.4.3 Healing of the fault memory
5.5.4.4 Freeze frame
5.6 Driving cycles
5.6.1 Introduction
5.6.2 Europe
5.6.3 USA
5.6.4 Worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure
5.7 Future developments in diagnostic systems
5.7.1 OBD3
5.7.2 Diesel engines
5.7.3 Rate-based monitoring
5.7.4 Model-based development
5.7.5 OBD security
5.7.6 Summary
Acknowledgement
6 Engine systems
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Engine operation
6.2.1 Four-stroke cycle
6.2.2 Cylinder layouts
6.2.3 Camshaft drives
6.2.4 Valve mechanisms
6.2.5 Valve and ignition timing
6.3 Diagnostics – engines
6.3.1 Systematic testing example
6.3.2 Test equipment
6.3.2.1 Compression tester
6.3.2.2 Cylinder leakage tester
6.3.3 Test results
6.3.4 Engine fault diagnosis table 1
6.3.5 Engine fault diagnosis table 2
6.4 Fuel system
6.4.1 Introduction
6.4.2 Engine management
6.5 Diagnostics – basic fuel system
6.5.1 Systematic testing example
6.5.2 Test equipment
6.5.2.1 Exhaust gas analyser
6.5.2.2 Fuel pressure gauge
6.5.3 Test results
6.5.4 Fuel fault diagnosis table 1
6.5.5 Fuel fault diagnosis table 2
6.6 Ignition
6.6.1 Basics
6.6.2 Advance angle (timing)
6.6.3 Electronic ignition
6.6.4 Hall effect distributor
6.6.5 Inductive distributor
6.6.6 Current-limiting and closed-loop dwell
6.6.7 Programmed ignition/electronic spark advance
6.6.8 Distributorless ignition
6.6.9 Direct ignition
6.6.10 Spark plugs
6.7 Diagnostics – ignition system
6.7.1 Testing procedure
6.7.2 Ignition fault diagnosis table
6.7.3 Ignition components and testing
6.7.4 DIS diagnostics
6.7.5 Coil on plug (COP) diagnostics
6.7.6 Spark plugs
6.8 Emissions
6.8.1 Introduction
6.8.2 Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
6.8.3 Catalytic converters
6.9 Diagnostics – emissions
6.9.1 Testing procedure
6.9.2 Emissions fault diagnosis table
6.10 Fuel injection
6.10.1 Introduction
6.10.2 Injection systems
6.10.3 Fuel injection components
6.10.3.1 Airflow meter
6.10.3.2 Electronic control unit (ECU)
6.10.3.3 Fuel pump
6.10.3.4 Fuel filter
6.10.3.5 Lambda sensor
6.10.3.6 Temperature sensor
6.10.3.7 Fuel injectors
6.10.3.8 Idle or fast idle control actuator
6.10.3.9 Fuel pressure regulator
6.10.3.10 Throttle position switch
6.10.4 Fuel mixture calculation
6.11 Diagnostics – fuel injection systems
6.11.1 Testing procedure
6.11.2 Fuel injection fault diagnosis table
6.12 Diesel injection
6.12.1 Introduction
6.12.2 Electronic control of diesel injection
6.12.3 Common rail (CR) diesel systems
6.12.4 Diesel exhaust emissions
6.12.5 Catalytic converter diesel
6.12.6 Diesel particulate filters
6.12.7 Selective catalytic reduction
6.13 Diagnostics – diesel injection systems
6.13.1 Test equipment
6.13.1.1 Smoke meter
6.13.1.2 Injector tester
6.13.2 Diesel injection fault diagnosis table
6.13.3 Diesel engine smoke
6.13.3.1 White or grey smoke
6.13.3.2 Blue smoke
6.13.3.3 Black smoke
6.13.4 Glow plug circuit
6.13.5 Diesel systems
6.14 Engine management
6.14.1 Introduction
6.14.2 Closed-loop lambda control
6.14.3 Engine management operation
6.14.4 Gasoline direct injection (GDI)
6.14.5 ECU calibration
6.15 Diagnostics – combined ignition and fuel systems
6.15.1 Testing procedure
6.15.2 Combined ignition and fuel control fault diagnosis table
6.15.3 Fuel pump testing
6.15.4 Injector testing
6.15.5 ECU fuel trim diagnostics
6.16 Air supply and exhaust systems
6.16.1 Exhaust system
6.16.2 Catalytic converters
6.16.3 Air supply system
6.17 Diagnostics – exhaust and air supply
6.17.1 Systematic testing
6.17.2 Test results
6.17.3 Exhaust and air supply fault diagnosis table 1
6.17.4 Exhaust fault diagnosis table 2
6.18 Cooling
6.18.1 Air-cooled system
6.18.2 Water-cooled system
6.18.3 Sealed and semi-sealed systems
6.18.4 Thermal management systems
6.19 Diagnostics – cooling
6.19.1 Systematic testing
6.19.2 Test equipment
6.19.2.1 Cooling system pressure tester
6.19.2.2 Antifreeze tester
6.19.2.3 Temperature meter/thermometer
6.19.3 Test results
6.19.4 Cooling fault diagnosis table 1
6.19.5 Cooling fault diagnosis table 2
6.20 Lubrication
6.20.1 Lubrication system
6.20.2 Oil filters
6.20.3 Oil pumps
6.20.4 Crankcase ventilation engine breather systems
6.21 Diagnostics – lubrication
6.21.1 Systematic testing
6.21.2 Test equipment
6.21.2.1 Oil pressure test gauge
6.21.2.2 Vacuum gauge
6.21.3 Test results
6.21.4 Lubrication fault diagnosis table 1
6.21.5 Lubrication fault diagnosis table 2
6.22 Batteries
6.22.1 Safety
6.22.2 Lead-acid batteries
6.22.3 Battery rating
6.23 Diagnostics – batteries
6.23.1 Servicing batteries
6.23.2 Maintenance-free
6.23.3 Charging
6.23.3.1 Smart chargers
6.23.4 Battery faults
6.23.5 Testing batteries
6.23.6 Battery diagnostics
6.24 Starting
6.24.1 Starter circuit
6.24.2 Pre-engaged starters
6.24.3 Keyless starting system
6.25 Diagnostics – starting
6.25.1 Circuit testing procedure
6.25.2 Starting fault diagnosis table
6.26 Charging
6.26.1 Introduction
6.26.2 Basic principles
6.26.3 Rectification of AC to DC
6.26.4 Regulation of output voltage
6.26.5 Basic charging circuits
6.26.6 Smart charging
6.27 Diagnostics – charging
6.27.1 Testing procedure
6.27.2 Charging fault diagnosis table
7 Chassis systems
7.1 Brakes
7.1.1 Introduction
7.1.2 Principle of hydraulic braking
7.1.3 Disc and drum brake systems
7.1.4 Brake adjustments
7.1.5 Servo-assisted braking
7.1.6 Brake fluid
7.2 Diagnostics – brakes
7.2.1 Systematic testing
7.2.2 Test equipment
7.2.2.1 Brake fluid tester
7.2.2.2 Brake roller test
7.2.3 Dial gauge
7.2.4 Test results
7.2.5 Brakes fault diagnosis table 1
7.2.6 Brakes fault diagnosis table 2
7.2.7 Brake hydraulic faults
7.2.8 Electronic brake system bleeding
7.3 Antilock brakes
7.3.1 Introduction
7.3.2 Requirements of ABS
7.3.3 General system description
7.3.4 ABS components
7.3.4.1 Wheel speed sensors
7.3.4.2 Electronic control unit
7.3.4.3 Hydraulic modulator
7.4 Diagnostics – antilock brakes
7.4.1 Systematic testing procedure
7.4.2 Antilock brakes fault diagnosis table
7.4.3 Bleeding antilock brakes
7.5 Traction control
7.5.1 Introduction
7.5.2 Control functions
7.5.3 System operation
7.6 Diagnostics – traction control
7.6.1 Systematic testing
7.6.2 Traction control fault diagnosis table
7.7 Steering and tyres
7.7.1 Construction of a tubeless radial tyre
7.7.2 Steering box and rack
7.7.3 Power-assisted steering
7.7.4 Steering characteristics
7.7.5 Camber
7.7.6 Castor
7.7.7 Swivel axis inclination
7.7.8 Tracking
7.7.9 Scrub radius
7.8 Diagnostics – steering and tyres
7.8.1 Systematic testing
7.8.2 Test equipment
7.8.2.1 Tyre pressure gauge and tread depth gauge
7.8.2.2 Tracking gauges
7.8.2.3 Wheel balancer
7.8.3 Four-wheel alignment
7.8.4 Test results
7.8.5 Tyres fault diagnosis table
7.8.6 Tyre inflation pressures
7.8.7 Steering fault diagnosis
7.8.8 Steering, wheels and tyres fault diagnosis
7.8.9 ADAS and alignment
7.9 Suspension
7.9.1 Introduction
7.9.2 Suspension system layouts
7.9.3 Front axle suspensions
7.9.4 Rear axle suspensions
7.9.5 Anti-roll bar
7.9.6 Springs
7.9.7 Dampers
7.10 Diagnostics – suspension
7.10.1 Systematic testing
7.10.2 Test equipment
7.10.2.1 Damper tester
7.10.3 Test results
7.10.4 Suspension fault diagnosis table 1
7.10.5 Suspension fault diagnosis table 2
7.11 Active suspension
7.11.1 Active suspension operation
7.11.2 Delphi MagneRide case study
7.12 Diagnostics – active suspension
7.12.1 Systematic testing
7.12.2 Back to the black box
8 Electrical systems
8.1 Electronic components and circuits
8.1.1 Introduction
8.1.2 Components
8.1.3 Integrated circuits
8.1.4 Digital circuits
8.1.5 Electronic component testing
8.2 Multiplexing
8.2.1 Overview
8.2.2 Controller area network (CAN)
8.2.3 CAN data signal
8.2.3.1 3-452 Section of an actual electrical signal
8.2.4 Local interconnect network (LIN)
8.2.5 FlexRay
8.3 Diagnostics – multiplexing
8.4 Lighting
8.4.1 External lights
8.4.2 Lighting circuits
8.4.3 Gas discharge lighting
8.4.4 LED lighting
8.5 Diagnostics – lighting
8.5.1 Testing procedure
8.5.2 Lighting fault diagnosis table
8.5.3 Headlight beam setting
8.6 Auxiliaries
8.6.1 Wiper motors and linkages
8.6.2 Wiper circuits
8.6.3 Two-motor wiper system
8.6.4 Headlight wipers and washers
8.6.5 Indicators and hazard lights
8.6.6 Brake lights
8.6.7 Electric horns
8.6.8 Engine cooling fan motors
8.7 Central control
8.7.1 Overview
8.7.2 System and circuit diagrams
8.7.3 Control units
8.8 Diagnostics – auxiliary
8.8.1 Testing procedure
8.8.2 Auxiliaries fault diagnosis table
8.8.3 Wiper motor and circuit testing
8.9 In-car entertainment (ICE), security and communications
8.9.1 ICE
8.9.2 Security systems
8.10 Diagnostics – ICE, security and communication
8.10.1 Testing procedure
8.10.2 ICE, security and communication system fault diagnosis table
8.11 Body electrical systems
8.11.1 Electric seat adjustment
8.11.2 Electric mirrors
8.11.3 Electric sunroof operation
8.11.4 Door locking circuit
8.11.5 Electric window operation
8.12 Diagnostics – body electrical
8.12.1 Testing procedure
8.12.2 Body electrical systems fault diagnosis table
8.12.3 Circuit systematic testing
8.13 Instrumentation
8.13.1 Gauges
8.13.2 Digital instrumentation
8.13.3 Vehicle condition monitoring
8.13.4 Trip computer
8.13.5 Displays
8.14 Diagnostics – instruments
8.14.1 Testing procedure
8.14.2 Instrumentation fault diagnosis table
8.14.3 Black box technique for instrumentation
8.15 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)
8.15.1 Ventilation and heating
8.15.2 Heating system – water-cooled engine
8.15.3 Heater blower motors
8.15.4 Electronic heating control
8.15.5 Air conditioning introduction
8.15.6 Air conditioning overview
8.15.7 Automatic temperature control
8.15.8 Seat heating
8.15.9 Screen heating
8.15.10 PTC EV heaters
8.16 Diagnostics – HVAC
8.16.1 Testing procedure
8.16.2 Air conditioning fault diagnosis table
8.16.3 Heating and ventilation fault diagnosis table
8.16.4 Air conditioning receiver
8.17 Cruise control
8.17.1 Introduction
8.17.2 System description
8.17.3 Components
8.18 Diagnostics – cruise control
8.18.1 Systematic testing
8.18.2 Cruise control fault diagnosis table
8.19 Air bags and belt tensioners
8.19.1 Introduction
8.19.2 Components and circuit
8.19.3 Seat belt tensioners
8.20 Diagnostics – air bags and belt tensioners
8.20.1 Systematic testing
8.20.2 Air bags and belt tensioners fault diagnosis table
8.20.3 Deactivation and activation procedures
8.20.3.1 Deactivation procedure
8.20.3.2 Reactivation procedure
9 Transmission systems
9.1 Manual transmission
9.1.1 Clutch
9.1.2 Manual gearbox
9.1.3 Drive shafts and wheel bearings
9.1.4 Final drive and differential
9.1.5 Four-wheel drive systems
9.2 Diagnostics – manual transmission
9.2.1 Systematic testing
9.2.2 Test equipment
9.2.2.1 Stethoscope
9.2.3 Test results
9.2.4 Manual transmission fault diagnosis table 1
9.2.5 Manual gearbox fault diagnosis table 2
9.2.6 Clutch fault diagnosis table
9.2.7 Drive shafts fault diagnosis table
9.2.8 Final drive fault diagnosis table
9.3 Automatic transmission
9.3.1 Introduction
9.3.2 Torque converter operation
9.3.3 Epicyclic gearbox operation
9.3.4 Constantly variable transmission
9.3.5 Electronic control of transmission
9.3.6 Direct shift gearbox
9.4 Diagnostics – automatic transmission
9.4.1 Systematic testing
9.4.2 Test equipment
9.4.2.1 Revcounter
9.4.2.2 Pressure gauge
9.4.3 Test results
9.4.4 Automatic gearbox fault diagnosis table 1
9.4.5 Automatic gearbox fault diagnosis table 2
9.4.6 ECAT fault diagnosis table
9.4.7 Automatic transmission stall test
10 Practical diagnostics
10.1 Real case studies
10.1.1 Introduction
10.1.2 Fiat Coupe 5-cylinder turbo with intermittent miss on number 3
10.1.3 2015 BMW 530d – unfixable!
10.1.4 Misfire after going through a flood
10.1.5 BMW with melted ignition coil
10.1.6 PHEV’s won’t charge when plugged in
10.1.7 Audi A6 4G 2.0 TDI Ultra, DPF
10.1.8 2014 Skoda Yeti, cruise control not working
10.1.9 1989 F250 service truck, cruise becomes inoperative with tail lights on
10.1.10 2002 Dodge Caravan SE (Flex Fuel) hard or no-start, poor idle quality, stall
10.1.11 2011 Volkswagen CC come in with a bulb out warning indicator
10.1.12 BMW 123d Case Study – Engine management issues
10.1.13 2016 Iveco Daily battery light illuminated on the dashboard
10.1.14 Chevrolet 3500 bus with a 6.6 Duramax diesel, ABS light on
10.1.15 Renault T DTI11 Euro 6 engine, fuel system fault
10.1.16 Vauxhall, making a decision on a £2500 part
10.1.17 Ford Fiesta with power loss
10.1.18 Citroen DS3 1.6 Diesel – no fault codes, now what?
10.1.19 2010 Citroen Dispatch cut out and would not re start
10.1.20 2014 Mitsubishi Outlander hybrid no ready mode
10.1.21 Fiat panda 2010 1.1 petrol, stalling
10.1.22 And finally...
10.2 Company case studies
10.2.1 Introduction
10.2.2 PicoScope: Audi A6 Quattro S-Line electric parking brake (EPB) failure
10.2.3 Autoscope: Diagnosing an engine using the pressure waveforms
10.2.4 The Automotive Technician (TaT), Australia
10.3 Website
10.3.1 Introduction
10.3.2 Resources
Glossary of abbreviations and acronyms
Index

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