Motors and Controls in Hazardous Areas Edition 2020 (PDF)

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Pages: 187 pages
Size: 91 MB
Publisher: HOTA
Author (s): Ian Staff
Language: English
Date of Publication: 2020


About the Author 3
Humberside Offshore Training Association (I-IOTA):
Types of AC 8cDC Motor
Section 1 History
The Electric Motor History: 18th Century
The Electric Motor Sum Up
Section 2 The DC Motor
The Basic DC Electric Motor:
Flerning's Rules:
The Permanent Magnet Stator (PMDC)
Section 3 Armature -- Stator Commutator
The DC Motor Armature:
DC Motor Wound Stator/Wound Rotor (A.rmatule):
Fitting the Armature into the Stator:
Section 4 DC Motor Winding Combinations
DC Series Motor
DC Shunt Motor
The DC Compound Motor
Separately Excited DC Motor
lnterpole Compound DC Motor
DC/AC Universal Motor:
Printed Circuit Board (PCB) DC Motor
DC Hornopolar Motor:
Brushless/Permanent Magnet Rotor: (BLDC)
IPM ac SPM DC Synchronous Motors:
DC Synchronous Surface Permanent Magnets (SPM)
DC Synchronous Interior Permanent Magnets (IPM)
Trapezoidal Brushless DC Motor (PMAC/BLDC/PMSM):
Rotating Magnetic Field:
The DC Ball Bearing Motor:
Some DC Motor Abbreviations:
Some of the DC Motor Phenomenon/Terminology:
DC Motor Faults
Section 5 From DC to AC
From DC to AC:
AC Induction:
Three Phases:
Back to the Rotating Magnetic Field:
Star/Delta windings:
Motor Pole
Poles v Speed:
Reversing a Three Phase Motor:
Motor Direction Indicator
Section 6 Synchronous Motor
Synchronous Induction Motor:
Synchronous Motors:
Section 7 The Induction Generator
Induction generator
Section 8 Single Phase AC Motors
A Capacitor:
Capacitor Start Induction Motor:
Capacitor Run Motor/Permanent Split Phase Capacitor Motor:
Capacitor Start/Capacitor Run Induction Motor:
Reversal of Capacitor Run Motor:
AC Single Phase Capacitor Motor Facts:
Shaded Pole Induction Motors:
Aluminum Disc Motor:
AC &DC Motors Summary
Section 9 External Sections of the Motor
External Parts of the Induction Motor:
Motor Eye Bolts 8c Shackles:
Is the Lifting Eye still in the Motor? (Company Policy)
Eye Bolt Standards:
The Coupling:
Electric Motor Vibration Problem Flowchart:
Coupling Cover:
What is checked on a VISUAL Inspection?
What is checked on a DETAILED guard Inspection?
Section 10 Bearings and Bearing Currents
Motor Bearings:
The Ball Bearing
The Roller Bearing:
Motor Bearing Problems:
Stator to Rotor Coupling Current:
Rotor to Shaft Current:
Stator to Shaft Current:
Stator to Ground Current
Frosting (Pitting):
Bearing Condition Monitoring:
Section 11 Motor Cooling Systems
Motor Overheating Causes:
The motor air flow is impeded:
The motor undergoes several starts in quick succession: .
The motor is not big enough for the load:
The supply voltage is low:
Motor or load developing a fault
The Temperature Rise of the motor is too high
Large Motors with Heat Exchanger:
Section 12 Motor Testing Insulation Resistance & Winding Balance
Testing Continuity/Balance:
Winding Balance:
Single Phasing Current:
The motor windings do not balance
Testing 'Clip On' Ammeter Balance:
Motor has low Insulation Resistance (IR):
Motor has water or damp inside
Motor has a winding fault to earth
Testing Motor EaLt'th Path:
Section 13 Motor Data Plate
Motor Data Plate:
IS Electric Motor Company Ltd. Hull:
Induction Motor
Serial Number:
Model Number:
Frame Size:
(Frequency) Hz:
(Kilowatt) KW:
Revolutions per Minute (RPM):
Star and Delta:
Insulation class:
Full Load Current:
Drive End (DE):
Non-Drive End (NDE)
Rating MCR:
Ingress Protection (IP66)
Amb. 40°C:
SF 1.15:
Mancimum Temperature Rise 70°C:
Hazardous Area Markings
A Roman 'II' after the Atex Mark:
Atex Number
Electric Motor Overhaul Report Form OR1:
Section 14 Three Phase Motor Control
AC Motor Control:
A very basic Single Phase Control Circuit (DOL):
'Direct on Line' (voL) 2 Phase Control Circuit:
Switch Fuse or Fused Switch?
Main Fuses So Isolator:
High Rupturing Capacity (HRC) Fuses
The Element:
Motor Fuses je: TIAl\/163
Fuse Sizes for Selected KW/FLC:
The Voltmeter:
The Analogue Ammeter:
Ammeter Readings:
Start Current:
Run Current/Full Load Current (FLC)
Motor on overload
No Load Current: .
Cracked Rotor Bar Current:
Current Transformer:
Motor Overloads
Motor Running Satisfactory
Motor on Overload:
Motor back to Normal:
Motor Single Phasing
Motor Single Phasing:
Magnetic (Dashpot) Ovet'loads:
Solid State Starter and Overloadsz
Test Equipment:
Secondary Thermal Overload Current Injection
The Current Transformer:
Primary Thermal Overload Current Injection:
Current Transformers (CTs)
Thermal Overload Report Form TO4:
Overload Connections:
A very basic Hand/Off/Auto Control Circuit (DOL):
The Contactor:
Motor Earth Leakage Protection:
Starter Indicator Lamps:
Starter Test Supply Voltage:
tarter Overhaul Report Form OR2:
So what common faults can there be on the Starter
a - Remote or local Stay-put Stop button pushed in:
b - The Overloads have tripped:
c - Main fuse blown:
d - The Control Fuse has blown
Section 15 Three Phase Motor Soft Starting
Star - Delta Starter:
Rotor Resistance Starter:
Liquid Rotor Resistance Starter:
Auto Transformer Start:
Solid State Soft-starting:
Primary Resistance Start:
High Frequency/Inverter Fed Drives
Section 16 Induction Motor Fault Finding
Section 17 The Motor Control Centre (MCC)
The Motor Control Centre Description:
The Motor Control Centre Starter Location:
The Equipment Numbering System:
MCC Starter Locations:
Motor Size Chart:
Section 18 Isolation & De-Isolation
Isolation 1: Running:
Stopped, Switched Ofil8c Locked Off:
The Lock-out Device:
Check Lock Offlsolation:
Fuse Removed/Replacement:
Section 19 Power Units KW, KVA, KVar, KWh Torque, Power
Factor Resistance, Impedance, Root Mean Squared, InductIve
Kilo Volt Amps (KVA):
KiloVArs (KVAI):
Kilowatt Hours:
Kilowatt  v Torque
Power Factor
Inductive Reactance
Resistance &Impedance;.........................................................................................................
Electromagnetic Inductance:
Root Mean Squared (RMS)
Section 20 Zones, Gas/Dust Groups, Temperature Classes
Motors for Hazardous Areas:
Zones and Protection:
Zone 1 Protections:
Zone 2 Protections
Gas Groups
Gas Group;
Temperature Class:
Temperature Classification:
Dusts: Zones, Categories and EPLs 179
Categories Gases & Vapours: EN60079
Categories Dusts: EN60079 - BS 61241
Equipment Protection Levels (EPLs) Gases pa Vapours:
Equipment Protection Levels (EPLs) Dusts 179
Dusts: Protections, Dust Groups and Dust T. Classes
Dust Groups:
Temperature Classification:
Combustion with Dusts
Section 20 Index
History of Inventions

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