£0

Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology for Therapists and Healthcare Professionals 2nd Edition 2021 (PDF)

Reviews:
(2)
Price:  £15
Main specifications
All specifications
PDF book:

✔️Immediate download 

✔️Highlighting, editing, saving and printing are available 

✔️The same content as in a hardcover book 

✔️Search for words within the text 

✔️For any PDF file viewers and devices 


How to download


Register on this website and pay for your selected book.

After you have paid, go to "My Account"-"Downloads" section. There you will see a PDF file. Download and open it. It contains a link to download your book. Click on the link and download your book.

You can send us a message that you want to receive the book to your e-mail, and a link to download the book will also be sent to your e-mail.



About the book:


Publisher: Lotus Publishing

Author (s): Ruth Hull

Pages: 442

Edition: 2021

Language: English

Size: 182 Mb



Content:


Introduction .................................................. 7

Chapter 1

Before You Begin ............................................. 9

Anatomical Position ..................................................... 9

Directional Terms ..................................................... 9

Anatomical Regionsand Body Cavities ........................... 11

Dividing the Body ........................................................... 14

Planes........................................................................... 14

Quadrants ................................................................ 14

Multiple-Choice Questions ........................................... 16

Note to Students ................................................................ 17

Learning Pathology........................................................... 17

Important Vocabulary ................................................ 17

Stress and Mental Health ................................................ 19

Chapter 2

Organisation of the Body ............................ 21

Levels of Structural Organisation of the Body . . . . 2 2

Chemical Organisation of the Body ................................ 23

Atoms and Elements ................................................ 23

Molecules and Compounds ...................................... 25

Chemical Bonds ........................................................... 26

The pH Scale: Acids, Bases and Salts........................... 27

Nutrients ..................................................................... 27

Major Compounds of the Body ................................ 28

Cellular Organisation of the Body ................................ 31

Plasma Membrane ..................................................... 31

Transport Across the Plasma Membrane ...................... 32

Cytoplasm and Cell Structures...................................... 34

Life Cycle of a Cell ........................................................... 36

Interphase and DNA Replication ................................ 36

Cell Division ................................................................ 37

Tissue Level of Organisation of the Body ...................... 40

Epithelial Tissue ........................................................... 41

Connective Tissue ..................................................... 43

Muscle Tissue................................................................ 45

Nervous Tissue ........................................................... 46

Membranes ................................................................ 46

Mucous Membranes ........................................... 46

Serous Membranes ................................................ 47

Cutaneous Membranes ..................................... 47

Connective Tissue (Synovial) Membranes . . . 4 7

SystemLevel of Organisation of the Body...................... 50

Pathology Basics................................................................ 50

Cancer........................................................................... 50

Study Outline ..................................................................... 53

Revision ........................................................................... 56

Multiple-Choice Questions ........................................... 56

Chapter 3

The Skin, Hair and Nails ............................ 59

Skin..................................................................................... 59

Functions of the Skin ................................................ 59

Anatomy of the Skin ................................................ 61

Types of Skin................................................................ 66

Hair..................................................................................... 67

Structure of the Hair ................................................ 67

Life Cycle of a Hair ...................................................... 68

Functions of the Hair ................................................ 69

Nails ................................................................................ 70

Anatomy of the Nail ................................................ 70

Functions of the Nail ................................................ 71

Cutaneous Glands ........................................................... 71

Sebaceous Glands ...................................................... 71

Sudoriferous (Sweat) Glands ................................ . 7 2

Common Pathologiesof the Skin..................................... 73

Red Flags ..................................................................... 73

Terms for Marks and Growths on the Skin . . .73

Common Pathologiesof the Nails ................................ 82

Study Outline ..................................................................... 85

Revision ........................................................................... 87

Multiple-Choice Questions ........................................... 87

Chapter 4

The Skeletal System ....................................... 89

Functions of the SkeletalSystem ..................................... 89

Anatomy of Bones ........................................................... 90

Bone Tissue ................................................................ 90

Bone Formation and Remodelling ........................... 91

What Does Ageing Do To Our Bones? ...................... 91

Types of Bones ................................................................ 92

Structure of a Long Bone ........................................... 93

Organisation of the Skeleton ........................................... 94

Axial Skeleton ................................................................ 96

Bones of the Skull ...................................................... 96

Bones of the Neurocranium ...................................... 96

Bones of the Viscerocranium ...................................... 97

Bones of the Neck and Spine ...................................... 99

Bones of the Thorax................................................ 103

Appendicular Skeleton ................................................ 105

Bones of the Pectoral Girdle (Shoulder) . . 106

Bones of the Upper Limb ...................................... 106

Bones of the Pelvic Girdle (Hip) ........................... 107

Bones of the Lower Limb ...................................... 108

Joints ........................................................................... 113

Functional Classification of Joints........................... 113

Structural Classification of Joints ........................... 113

Movements at Synovial Joints................................ 115

Common Pathologies of the Skeletal System . . 119

Red Flags .................................................................... 119

Study Outline .............................................................. . 1 2 5

Revision .......................................................................... 127

Multiple-Choice Questions ........................................ 128

Chapter 5

The Muscular System . . . . . . . 129

Functions of the Muscular System ............................ 129

Muscle Tissue .............................................................. 130

Types of Muscle Tissue: Skeletal, Cardiac,

Smooth (Visceral) ............................................. 130

Skeletal Muscle .............................................................. 132

Structure of a Skeletal Muscle.................................. 132

Muscle Contraction ......................................................... 135

How Do Muscles Contract? . . . . . . . 135

How Do Muscles Relax? ........................................ 136

Types of Muscular Contraction ............................. 138

Muscle Metabolism ................................................... 139

Muscle Fibre Types ................................................... 140

Muscles of the Body ................................................... 142

Skeletal Muscles and Movement .................................. 144

Muscles of the Face and Scalp.................................. 145

Muscles of the Neck................................................... 150

Muscles of the Trunk ............................................. 154

Muscles of the Shoulder ........................................ 157

Muscles of the Back................................................... 162

Muscles of the Arm ................................................... 166

Muscles of the Forearm ............................................. 166

Muscles of the Hand ............................................. 172

Muscles of the Hip ................................................... 174

Muscles of the Thigh ............................................. 175

Muscles of the Leg ................................................... 179

Muscles of the Foot ................................................... 183

Common Pathologies of the Muscular System. 186

Red Flags .................................................................... 186

Study Outline .................................................................... 191

Photographs of Principle Skeletal Muscles . . . . 193

Revision .......................................................................... 199

Multiple-Choice Questions ........................................ 199

Chapter 6

The Nervous System ....................................... 201

Functions of the Nervous System.................................. 201

Organisation of the Nervous System. . . . . . 202

Central Nervous System ........................................ 203

Peripheral Nervous System. . . ....................... 203

Somatic Nervous System .................................. 204

Autonomic Nervous System ............................. 204

Nervous Tissue .............................................................. 206

Neuroglia .................................................................... 206

Neurons .................................................................... 206

Transmission of a Nerve Impulse .................................. 209

Nerves ............................................................................... 211

Brain .................................. 211

Protection of the Brain ............................................. 212

Cranial Meninges ............................................. 212

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) .................................. 213

Regions of the Brain................................................... 215

Brain Stem ......................................................... 215

Cerebellum ......................................................... 216

Diencephalon (Interbrain) .................................. 216

Cerebrum .............................................................. 218

Cranial Nerves .............................................................. 221

Spinal Cord .................................................................... 223

Functions of the Spinal Cord .................................. 223

Anatomy of the Spinal Cord .................................. 223

Internal Anatomy of the Spinal Cord....................... 224

Spinal Nerves . 224

Special Sense Organs ................................................... 227

Eyes .......................................................................... 227

Ears............................................................................... 230

Mouth.......................................................................... 232

Nose .......................................................................... 233

Common Pathologies of the Nervous System . . . 234

Red Flags .................................................................... 234

Study Outline.................................................................... 241

Revision .......................................................................... 243

Multiple-Choice Questions ........................................ 244

Chapter 7

The Endocrine System .................................. 245

Functions of the Endocrine System ............................ 245

Hormones ......................................................................... 246

Types of Hormones ................................................... 246

Action of Hormones................................................... 246

Control of Hormone Release .................................. 246

Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones ....................... 247

Hypothalamus ......................................................... 247

Pituitary Gland ........................................ 247

Pineal Gland .............................................................. 250

Thyroid Gland ......................................................... 251

Parathyroid Glands ................................................... 252

Thymus Gland ......................................................... 252

Pancreatic Islets ......................................................... 253

Adrenal Glands ......................................................... 253

Ovaries and Testes ....................... 255

Ageing and Our Hormones ........................................ 256

Stress Response in More Detail .................................. 256

Fight-or-Flight Response ........................................ 256

Resistance Reaction ................................................... 257

Effects of Long-Term Stress: Exhaustion . . . . 257

Common Pathologies of the Endocrine System . . 259

Red Flags . . ......................................................... 259

Study Outline .................................................................... 262

Revision .......................................................................... 263

Multiple-Choice Questions ........................................ 264

Chapter 8

The Respiratory System. . . . - - 265

Functions of the Respiratory System........................... 265

Organisation of the Respiratory System..................... 266

Nose ..................................................................... 267

Pharynx (Throat) ..................................................... 268

Larynx (Voice Box) ................................................ 269

Trachea (Windpipe) ................................................ 271

Bronchi ................................................................ 272

Lungs ..................................................................... 273

Physiologyof Respiration........................................... 274

Common Pathologiesof the RespiratorySystem . . 278

Red Flags ................................................................ 278

Study Outline................................................................ 283

Revision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285

Multiple-Choice Questions ..................................... 285

Chapter 9

The Cardiovascular System . . . . . 287

Blood .......................................................................... 287

Functions of Blood ................................................ 287

Components of Blood ........................................... 287

Blood Plasma ............................ 288

Formed Elements: Erythrocytes, Leucocytes . 289

Heart .......................................................................... 292

Anatomy of the Heart ........................................... 292

Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation . . . 296

Coronary Circulation ..................................... 298

Physiology of the Heart ..................................... 299

Regulation of the Heart Rate ........................... 299

Cardiac Cycle ................................................ 301

Bloodvessels................................................................ 302

Arteries and Arterioles ........................................... 302

Capillaries................................................................ 303

Veins and Venules ................................................ 304

Blood Pressure ........................................................... 305

PrimaryBlood Vesselsof SystemicCirculation. . . 306

Aorta ..................................................................... 307

Superior Vena Cavar Inferior Vena Cava and Coronary Sinus........................................... 307

Primary Blood Vessels of the Head, Faceand Neck 310

Primary Blood Vessels of the Upper Limbs . . . 311

Primary Blood Vessels of the Thorax...................... 312

Primary Blood Vessels of the Abdomen . . . . 313

Primary Blood Vessels of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs ........................................... 316

Common Pathologiesof the Cardiovascular System . 317

Red Flags ................................................................ 317

Study Outline. . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

Revision ..................................................................... 324

Multiple-Choice Questions ..................................... 325

Chapter 10

The Lymphatic and Immune System . . . 327

Functionsof the Lymphaticand Immune System . . 327

Organisation of the Lymphaticand Immune System . 330

Lymph ..................................................................... 331

Lymphatic Capillaries ........................................... 331

Lymphatic Vessels ................................................ 331

Lymph Nodes (Glands) ........................................... 332

Lymphatic Organs ................................................ 334

Lymphatic Nodules (Muscosa-Associated

Lymphoid Tissue) ........................................... 335

Resistanceto Diseaseand Immunity........................... 336

Non-Specific Resistance to Disease ...................... 336

Mechanical and Chemical Barriers . . . . 336

Natural Killer Cells and Phagocytes . . . . 336

Inflammation ................................................ 337

Fever ................................................................ 337

Immunity (The Immune Response) ...................... 337

Types of Immune Responses ........................... 338

Common Pathologiesof the Lymphatic

and Immune System ........................................... 339

Red Flags ................................................................ 339

Study Outline................................................................ 341

Revision ..................................................................... 342

Multiple-Choice Questions ...................................... 343

Chapter 11

The Digestive System . . . . . . . 345

Functionsof the Digestive System ........................... 345

Organisation of the Digestive System ...................... 346

Gastrointestinal Tractand Its Accessory Organs . . 349

Mouth (Oral or Buccal Cavity) . . . . . . 349

Oesophagus ........................................................... 352

Stomach ........................................... 353

Pancreas ................................................................ 355

Liver ..................................................................... 355

Gall Bladder ........................................................... 357

Small Intestine ..................................................... 357

Large Intestine ...................................... 361

Common Pathologiesof the Digestive System. . . 363

Red Flags ................................................................ 363

Study Outline................................................................ 369

Revision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372

Multiple-Choice Questions ..................................... 372

Chapter 12

The Urinary System ....................................... 373

Functionsof the Urinary System ................................ 373

Organisation of the Urinary System........................... 374

Kidneys ........................................... 374

Anatomy of the Kidneys ................................ 374

Physiology of the Kidneys...................... . . 378

Urine Production . . ...................... . . 379

Fluid and Electrolyte Balance. . . . . . 381

Ureters........................................................... . . 382

Urinary Bladder ........................... . . . 382

Urethra ...................................................... . . 383

Common Pathologiesof the Urinary System . . . 383

Red Flags ..................................................... . . 383

Study Outline ..................................................... . . 386

Revision ........................................................... . . 387

Multiple-Choice Questions ........................... . . 388

Chapter 13 

The Reproductive System ....................... . 389 

Functionsof the Reproductive System . . . 389

Male Reproductive System................................ . . 390

Female Reproductive System ........................... . . 393

Female Reproductive Cycle ...................... . . 397

Ageingand the Reproductive System . . . . . 401

Common Pathologiesof the Reproductive System . 403

Male Reproductive System - Red Flags . . . . 403

Female Reproductive System - Red Flags . . 403

Study Outline........................................................... . 408

Revision ................................................................ . 409

Multiple-Choice Questions ................................ . 409

Answers to Multiple-Choice Questions . . 410

Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . 411

Vitamins and Minerals - Dietary Sources, Functions, Deficiencies

Bibliography ............................................. . 416

Clossary .................................................. . 418

Index ...................................................... 435

Tags: Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology textbook, Anatomy book, Physiology book, Pathology book online

Specifications
Format of the book
PDF book
Reviews (2)
Maria
Maria
11/12/2022
This book was recommended to me in my class. I liked the book very much. Successful experience.
Orlando
Orlando
02/10/2022
Great book for a reasonable price. Fast and convenient.
0